定语从句中 which\ that 的用法与区别

使用that的情况:

1.当先行词是nothing, something, anything, all, each等不定代词时。

e.g. Do you have anything that is important to tell me?

2.当先行词被all, any, some, no, not, every, each等修饰时。

e.g. I have some books that are very good.

3.当先行词被形容词最高级、序数词所修饰时。

e.g. This is the first book that I bought myself.

The biggest bird that I caught is this bird.
4.主句是以which或who开头的特殊疑问句时

e.g. Which is the bike that you lost?

Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting.

5.当先行词在从句和主句中都作表语时,无论先行词是人还是物.

China is no longer the country that she was.

6.如有两个定语从句,其中一个已用which引导,另一个宜用that .

Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

7.在there be句型中,只用that.

He asked for the latest book (that) there is on the subject.

8.当先行词被the very, the last, the next, the only 等词修饰时。

e.g. This is the very book that I lost yesterday.

9.当先行词又有人又有物时。

e.g. I won’t forget the things and the persons that I saw.

只能使用which的情况

1、非限制性定语从句中。

e.g. Mary has a book, which is very precious.

2、在介词之后。

e.g. This is a house in which lives an old man.

3、当主句中的主语被that修饰时。

e.g. That dog which I found in the street belongs to Mary.

 

from:http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/106209631.html

英语写作名词堆砌问题

中国人英语写作过程容易出现名词堆砌问题

例如: transient model for kinetic analysis of electric stimulus-responsive hydrogels

应该为:Transient model for kinetic analysis of hydrogels responsive to electric stimulus

“with+名词”短语

当名词用作形容词来修饰另一个名词时,如果前者是后者的一部分,或者是后者所具有的性质、特点时,采用 “with+名词”组成的前置短语作形容词,放在所要修饰的名词之后。

例如: New types of machines with the Chinese characteristics

Wrong: Chinese characteristics machines